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Space Engineers Feb 2019 public test UNOFFICIAL survey results (data dump)

Results are from 71 valid responses (86 responses total but 15 hadn't actually played the test) Thanks to all that submitted responses!

Graphical results

https://imgur.com/a/Ff1FF3i

New block comments

Progression tree comments

Cargo ship / random encounter comments

New spawning system comments

Temperature mechanic comments

New chat / inventory size comments

Overall test comments

This is a pretty amazing update. Nice job, Keen! I look forward to seeing the full release. Here are a few things I really like, in no particular order:
With that said, there's still room for improvement:
I also have a few things I'd like to see in future updates:
And to everyone at Keen Software House, seriously, great update. I love Space Engineers, and I love to see it improve. Keep up the great work!
submitted by lilbigmouth to spaceengineers [link] [comments]

MAME 0.201

MAME 0.201

It’s the end of another month, and time for your scheduled MAME release, with more of everything we know you love. In a last-minute update, we slipped in a major performance optimisation for bgfx video output. It’s particularly noticeable when using cropped artwork, and there’s no longer a big performance penalty for bringing up the menu over the emulation on macOS. Another core improvement is support for TAP/TUN networking on Windows, providing a big performance improvement when connecting an emulated system to a network on the host machine.
From the department of things considered lost to time, MAME 0.201 allows you to play as Chuby the octopus, in the incredibly elusive Spanish game Night Mare. Unfortunately the sound ROMs were missing, so you won’t be able to hear Chuby speak, and we still need to be on the lookout for the export version known as Clean Octopus. And speaking of rare games from Spain, two more Magnet System titles have been dumped: A Day in Space and The Burning Cavern.
Newly dumped versions of supported arcade games include prototypes of Halley’s Comet (Taito) and Dog Fight (Orca), a newer version of the original Master Boy (Gaelco), and the Korean release of Raiden II (Seibu Kaihatsu). A redumped ROM allowed Psychic Force EX to run correctly. The vgmplay logged music player has had a big update in this release, with support for several more sound chips and a comprehensive software list.
And this brings us to audio improvements, which seem to have all crowded their way into this release. We have fixes for long-standing sound bugs in Twin Eagle, Targ and Spectar. Sound in Amazing Maze is no longer cut off after thirty seconds or so. There are some big changes for QSound and Taito Zoom ZSG-2 that should make things sound nicer. There’s also preliminary support for the NEC PC-FX’s HuC6230 SoundBox, but be aware it has a DC offset so you’ll hear a big thud when you start or stop it.
Recent improvements in NEC PC-98 emulation have seen dozens of titles promoted to working status, and we’ve added another batch of dumps from Neo Kobe Collection. There are a number of fixes that improve TI-99 floppy and cassette support in this release. InterPro systems can now be used via a serial terminal in configurations without a video card or keyboard. At long last, the Apple //c Plus can boot from its internal floppy drive. Other improvements to computer emulation include better keyboard support for Amiga systems, and improved GPU emulation for the HP Integral PC.
Of course, you can get source and Windows binaries from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Translations added or modified

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

MAME 0.201

MAME 0.201

It’s the end of another month, and time for your scheduled MAME release, with more of everything we know you love. In a last-minute update, we slipped in a major performance optimisation for bgfx video output. It’s particularly noticeable when using cropped artwork, and there’s no longer a big performance penalty for bringing up the menu over the emulation on macOS. Another core improvement is support for TAP/TUN networking on Windows, providing a big performance improvement when connecting an emulated system to a network on the host machine.
From the department of things considered lost to time, MAME 0.201 allows you to play as Chuby the octopus, in the incredibly elusive Spanish game Night Mare. Unfortunately the sound ROMs were missing, so you won’t be able to hear Chuby speak, and we still need to be on the lookout for the export version known as Clean Octopus. And speaking of rare games from Spain, two more Magnet System titles have been dumped: A Day in Space and The Burning Cavern.
Newly dumped versions of supported arcade games include prototypes of Halley’s Comet (Taito) and Dog Fight (Orca), a newer version of the original Master Boy (Gaelco), and the Korean release of Raiden II (Seibu Kaihatsu). A redumped ROM allowed Psychic Force EX to run correctly. The vgmplay logged music player has had a big update in this release, with support for several more sound chips and a comprehensive software list.
And this brings us to audio improvements, which seem to have all crowded their way into this release. We have fixes for long-standing sound bugs in Twin Eagle, Targ and Spectar. Sound in Amazing Maze is no longer cut off after thirty seconds or so. There are some big changes for QSound and Taito Zoom ZSG-2 that should make things sound nicer. There’s also preliminary support for the NEC PC-FX’s HuC6230 SoundBox, but be aware it has a DC offset so you’ll hear a big thud when you start or stop it.
Recent improvements in NEC PC-98 emulation have seen dozens of titles promoted to working status, and we’ve added another batch of dumps from Neo Kobe Collection. There are a number of fixes that improve TI-99 floppy and cassette support in this release. InterPro systems can now be used via a serial terminal in configurations without a video card or keyboard. At long last, the Apple //c Plus can boot from its internal floppy drive. Other improvements to computer emulation include better keyboard support for Amiga systems, and improved GPU emulation for the HP Integral PC.
Of course, you can get source and Windows binaries from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Translations added or modified

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to MAME [link] [comments]

MAME 0.201

MAME 0.201

It’s the end of another month, and time for your scheduled MAME release, with more of everything we know you love. In a last-minute update, we slipped in a major performance optimisation for bgfx video output. It’s particularly noticeable when using cropped artwork, and there’s no longer a big performance penalty for bringing up the menu over the emulation on macOS. Another core improvement is support for TAP/TUN networking on Windows, providing a big performance improvement when connecting an emulated system to a network on the host machine.
From the department of things considered lost to time, MAME 0.201 allows you to play as Chuby the octopus, in the incredibly elusive Spanish game Night Mare. Unfortunately the sound ROMs were missing, so you won’t be able to hear Chuby speak, and we still need to be on the lookout for the export version known as Clean Octopus. And speaking of rare games from Spain, two more Magnet System titles have been dumped: A Day in Space and The Burning Cavern.
Newly dumped versions of supported arcade games include prototypes of Halley’s Comet (Taito) and Dog Fight (Orca), a newer version of the original Master Boy (Gaelco), and the Korean release of Raiden II (Seibu Kaihatsu). A redumped ROM allowed Psychic Force EX to run correctly. The vgmplay logged music player has had a big update in this release, with support for several more sound chips and a comprehensive software list.
And this brings us to audio improvements, which seem to have all crowded their way into this release. We have fixes for long-standing sound bugs in Twin Eagle, Targ and Spectar. Sound in Amazing Maze is no longer cut off after thirty seconds or so. There are some big changes for QSound and Taito Zoom ZSG-2 that should make things sound nicer. There’s also preliminary support for the NEC PC-FX’s HuC6230 SoundBox, but be aware it has a DC offset so you’ll hear a big thud when you start or stop it.
Recent improvements in NEC PC-98 emulation have seen dozens of titles promoted to working status, and we’ve added another batch of dumps from Neo Kobe Collection. There are a number of fixes that improve TI-99 floppy and cassette support in this release. InterPro systems can now be used via a serial terminal in configurations without a video card or keyboard. At long last, the Apple //c Plus can boot from its internal floppy drive. Other improvements to computer emulation include better keyboard support for Amiga systems, and improved GPU emulation for the HP Integral PC.
Of course, you can get source and Windows binaries from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Translations added or modified

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to cade [link] [comments]

How Detroit: Become Human creates a "branching" narrative (x-post to r/DetroitBecomeHuman)

In this post, my goal is to discuss the different methods that Detroit: Become Human uses to create a "branching" narrative, talk about the pros and cons of these methods, and occasionally compare them to other games in the genre. I have personally played Indigo Prophecy, Heavy Rain, Life is Strange, Until Dawn, and Batman: The Telltale Series, but am not as familiar with these as D:BH. I've achieved 100% completion in the flowcharts for D:BH, so I feel very knowledgeable about the mechanics of individual scenes and the outcomes of most of this game's choices compared to the others. Basically, I'm hoping to create a discussion on how well games in this genre take player choice into account, comparing different studios' design philosophies, what you like about certain games in this respect, what you wish could be altered, and what you hope to see in the future. Be warned that I'm going to significantly spoil Detroit: Become Human here, though I'll try to tag spoilers for other games. A few weeks ago, I posted all the completed flowcharts on the D:BH subreddit here, so if you haven't played the game and don't care about spoilers, you can refer to every scene I talk about.
It seems to be a general consensus that among the different games in the interactive movie genre (AKA cinematic "choose-your-own-adventure" games), Detroit: Become Human represents the "gold standard" so far in taking player choice into account and creating meaningfully different narratives in different playthroughs (as well as Heavy Rain and Until Dawn, to a lesser extent). Meanwhile, Telltale Games has been gaining increasing criticism for "railroaded" and "meaningless" choices, though this perception might change after the company's restructuring and new engine. While Telltale games may not offer a branching experience (again, I've only played Batman Season 1, so feel free to argue this point in the comments), it's interesting to note that there aren't that many branching scenarios in D:BH either, though at this point, we'll have to define what exactly "branching" means in this context.
When most people think of a "branching" narrative, they'll imagine making decisions that lead to distinct scenarios, which may lead to further branches, and so on until reaching an ending (ideally, one of many), exactly like the shape of a tree. While this is true for D:BH's final chapters, to the extent that each character has two different flowcharts by the end, the first 90% of the game doesn't take this approach. The player is taken through each chapter one at a time, with little opportunities to significantly change the narrative of later chapters. The chapters can't be played in a different order, and the only way to skip chapters entirely are by killing off the main characters and ending their stories (and also failing to find Carlos's android, which skips The Interrogation). This means that on subsequent playthroughs, players will immediately know the "premise" of each scene and generally what to expect. One exception is Fugitives -> On the Run, which has 3 branches depending on where Kara chooses to spend the night, but even these quickly converge to the same paths. On the surface, it may seem that as long as you keep the main characters alive, nothing you do matters until you reach Crossroads. Despite this, most players feel that the game is still engaging enough for two, three, or even more playthroughs (though some chapters are certainly more replayable than others). Having endlessly played through the game forwards and backwards myself, I've found that D:BH uses a variety of ways to present choices to the player, and a variety of ways to demonstrate the effects of those same choices. It should be noted that many chapters use a mix of these methods.

One Explicit Choice

Examples: Shooting or sparing Chloe in Meet Kamski, pushing Leo or enduring in Broken, leading a revolution or demonstration in the final chapter This is the most straightforward example of presenting a branch to the player. It is very flexible, easy for the developer to implement, and the easiest for players to understand. When it's not timed, this can work well for moral decisions, as it allows the player to weigh the situation. These scenarios can vary in how much the choice affects the narrative. The three examples I gave are consequential in different ways, which I'll touch upon later on. This can be badly used, however - it can make playthroughs seem too binary or make the player feel that all of their previous choices were thrown away in favor of having to make this one decision. For example, you can be peaceful throughout the game as Markus, and then suddenly decide to lead an armed revolution in the final chapter. I think this works best when it's combined with other methods on this list.

Action/Timed/Reflex Events

Examples: chasing Rupert in The Nest, Zlatko, On the Run, finding the Tracis in Eden Club, every single fight scene In Telltale games, failing QTEs causes a game over and a restart. In Life is Strange, reaching a failure state forces you to rewind time until you make a "correct" choice. However, Until Dawn and David "Game overs are a failure of the designer" Cage's games take a different approach. In many situations, failing QTEs will cause the story to move forward with serious repercussions, up to and including the main characters' deaths. This can cause the tension to ramp up to levels you'd never experience in other games in this genre. This has several drawbacks, however. It works well for D:BH, Heavy Rain, and Until Dawn because you play as multiple characters in those games, and thus the game can "afford" to lose characters. For games with single protagonists, as in Beyond: Two Souls, the player will get wise to the fact that they're not really in danger, because no one's going to make a game that can prematurely end 20% of the way in (this could be an interesting experiment, though... discuss!). Having protagonists die can also cause players to feel cheated out of content or closure to a story, especially if a sequence was unintentionally hard or confusing. These are less of a problem if the consequence is less severe (for example, failing to find the Tracis in time will just end the chapter early, or maybe if failing a set of QTEs causes someone else to die instead). These kinds of sequences will also make a game less accessible to certain players (I trust that my grandmother can press buttons to make decisions, but there's no way she'd succeed in any fight scene).

One Problem, Many Solutions, Few Outcomes

Examples: Stormy Night, stealing the key in Spare Parts, the evidence room in Last Chance, Connor, fleeing from the soldiers as Kara in the last part of Crossroads The idea here is that instead of branching a scene by presenting an explicit choice, you create high amounts of branching within a particular scene, which will then converge to a set amount of outcomes. Stormy Night is the perfect example. The player's goal is to protect Alice from Todd, and while there are only three meaningfully different outcomes (Kara and Alice escaped while Todd lived, they escaped but Todd died, or Kara and Alice died), the player is offered many different solutions, some of which may converge (usually into a fight scene) or lead to others (for example, getting kicked out of Alice's room by Todd gives you another chance to take the gun). I feel something like this is a great way to add replayability to a scene even if the outcomes are limited, though in this particular example, I don't like the fact that taking the gun instantly locks you into either "Kara shoots Todd" or "Alice shoots Todd". Another example is when Connor uses evidence obtained throughout the game and has several options to find Jericho, which leads to my favorite-looking flowchart in the entire game.

One Path with Many Fail States

Examples: Eden Club, Zlatko, Midnight Train, Last Chance Connor, most of Crossroads, Kara at the recycling center in the final chapter Rather self-explanatory. It's somewhat of an expanded version of the action/timed events mentioned earlier, in that the game tries to create tension by forcing the player to roll with bad consequences. In the recycling center, for example, there are two ways to get a good ending for Kara and a million ways to get a bad ending. This method suffers from the same drawbacks concerning too severe consequences and potentially difficult and confusing scenarios, but this is still a good way to raise the stakes of a scene. In some cases, it can limit replayability; if the player knows the correct path forward, why would they choose otherwise if it leads to a bad outcome (besides curiosity)?

The Mini-Open World

Examples: Fugitives, Capitol Park, every investigation scene This is one of the more intriguing concepts that I would certainly love to see explored in future games in this genre. Here, the player is put into a confined space, and must explore and interact with their environment in order to solve the problem at hand. This essentially feels like a point-and-click adventure in concept. Fugitives is the most obvious example - you have 3 choices of where to stay, and must explore the environment to find a way to access these options (you have to find money and clothes to stay in the motel or obtain a pair of wire cutters to get inside the squat). Meanwhile, in Capitol Park, Markus has only one solution to accomplish his mission (steal a truck and ram it into the store), but is penalized for not exploring the environment carefully enough (he can get spotted by a drone or cause the police to arrive, which may force him to abandon the mission). I think this is a good option for presenting a problem and potential solution in a more dynamic way compared to others, and I would have certainly loved it if there were more chapters like Fugitives in the game. Outside of the genre, this is one of the main ways that immersive sims like Deus Ex, Dishonored, and Prey allow for player choice.

The Set-Up and Punchline

Examples: Todd surviving, Carl's fate, meeting Ralph, Cole's photo, John from Spare Parts, saving the wounded cop in The Hostage Here, the outcomes of the choices you make aren't immediately apparent. This is basically the equivalent of "X will remember that" from Telltale games. For example, pushing Leo or letting him fight you in Broken only affects the plot until the second-to-last chapter, where Markus either sees Carl at his house or visits his grave. It doesn't have to affect the main plot - the wounded cop living to see Public Enemy doesn't change the gameplay or story at all. However, it creates a small, narrative arc that can set individual playthroughs apart from each other. Meanwhile, Until Dawn used this method to create a sense of paranoia in the player - due to the butterfly effect, you have often no idea if the actions you take will backfire later on. This can be done badly, though - there's no indication that not seeing the photo in Hank's house locks you out of getting the best ending for Connor, and players who reach that point and get shot by Hank will have no idea what they did wrong.

The Second Chance

Examples: Kara fleeing in On the Run, Kara being reset by Zlatko, Markus sacrificing himself at the Freedom March, Connor sparing the Chloe in Meet Kamski In these situations, a "bad" choice or event won't immediately lead to a negative consequence - instead, the game gives the player an opportunity to correct their mistake. For example, being reset by Zlatko's machine won't end Kara's story, but the player is then given a (very generous) time limit to explore the mansion and restore her memories. In another example, Markus can choose to sacrifice himself at the Freedom March. As it turns out, his death here has very negative consequences, so if the player chooses this option, the game will have John or Simon sacrifice themselves in his place. If both of those characters are unavailable due to previous choices, then Markus will die (and at this point, it was pretty much your fault anyway). In my opinion, this is a neat way to create alternative narratives between different players; good players feel properly rewarded for making good choices, while other players won't necessarily have to suffer through severe consequences (and are rewarded with extra gameplay in some cases). Done badly, it can make players feel like the game is cheating in their favor. My favorite example of this method isn't actually in D:BH, but in Heavy Rain - spoilers

The Culmination of Previous Choices

Examples: The evidence room, software instability and the relationship system This is one of the main ways that D:BH makes your choices matter throughout the game, even if just a little bit. Many of your actions, from rescuing Hank on the rooftop to saving the fish in the first chapter, will affect your relationship with other characters and affect Connor's software instability. Depending on how you act as Connor, Hank can be good friends with him, refuse to help him with the investigation, or quit the force and later commit suicide. This method is a great way to essentially "track" the player's minor choices throughout the game, and have each small decision make an impact without having to create separate branches. I'm sure that out of the millions of people who've played D:BH, saving the fish meant the difference between a deviant and machine Connor to at least one person. The drawback is that it can turn interactions into pure numbers, and cause players to not act as they normally would with other characters, but to do what they can to keep their relationships at arbitrary values ("friendly", "hostile"). Another way D:BH uses this method is, once again, shown through the evidence room in Last Chance, Connor (I really just love this scene in terms of gameplay). Throughout the game, Connor has multiple chances to gather evidence to locate Jericho, though the player isn't even aware that they're doing so. Depending on the playthrough, the player will have gathered different sets of evidence that can be used to find the location in different ways. If the player doesn't locate Jericho, either by running out of time or through a lack of evidence, then Connor's story will permanently end at this point. As one last bonus, this scene can be skipped entirely if Connor shoots Chloe and asks Kamski the location, which is another example of the Second Chance method above. Overall, Connor's entire story up to this point is made up of more or less separated plotlines that culminate in this one chapter. David Cage really seems to love this particular trope - you can find similar scenes in both Indigo Prophecy and Heavy Rain.
 
As you can see, Detroit: Become Human uses a variety of ways to make your choices matter, even if they don't lead to entire separate branches. Of course, I have no idea the process that David Cage and/or the rest of Quantic Dream uses to write and design these types of narratives, but it seems you can categorize some of these methods as above. I would love to hear what you guys think about these methods and how they compare to other games in the genre. Are you satisfied with how player choice is taken into account? What do you think these games do well and what do you wish they'd do differently? And in general, what do you hope to see from this genre in the future?
submitted by throwawaydeviant9 to truegaming [link] [comments]

The Nexus FAQ - part 1

Full formatted version: https://docs.google.com/document/d/16KKjVjQH0ypLe00aoTJ_hZyce7RAtjC5XHom104yn6M/
 

Nexus 101:

  1. What is Nexus?
  2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
  3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
  4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement this?
  5. What is Nexus’ Unified Time protocol?
  6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?
 

The Nexus Currency:

  1. How can I get Nexus?
  2. How much does a transaction cost?
  3. How fast does Nexus transfer?
  4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
  5. Is there a cap on the number of Nexus in existence?
  6. What is the difference between the Oracle wallet and the LLD wallet?
  7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
  8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet?
 

Types of Mining or Minting:

  1. Can I mine Nexus?
  2. How do I mine Nexus?
  3. How do I stake Nexus?
  4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are trust weight, block weight and stake weight?
 

Nexus 101:

1. What is Nexus (NXS)?
Nexus is a digital currency, distributed framework, and peer-to-peer network. Nexus further improves upon the blockchain protocol by focusing on the following core technological principles:
Nexus will combine our in-development quantum-resistant 3D blockchain software with cutting edge communication satellites to deliver a free, distributed, financial and data solution. Through our planned satellite and ground-based mesh networks, Nexus will provide uncensored internet access whilst bringing the benefits of distributed database systems to the world.
For a short video introduction to Nexus Earth, please visit this link
 
2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
As Nexus has been developed, an incredible amount of time has been put into identifying and solving several key limitations:
Nexus is also developing a framework called the Lower Level Library. This LLL will incorporate the following improvements:
For information about more additions to the Lower Level Library, please visit here
 
3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
Nexus is unique amongst blockchain technology in that Nexus uses 3 channels to secure the network against attack. Whereas Bitcoin uses only Proof-of-Work to secure the network, Nexus combines a prime number channel, a hashing channel and a Proof-of-Stake channel. Where Bitcoin has a difficulty adjustment interval measured in weeks, Nexus can respond to increased hashrate in the space of 1 block and each channel scales independently of the other two channels. This stabilizes the block times at ~50 seconds and ensures no single channel can monopolize block production. This means that a 51% attack is much more difficult to launch because an attacker would need to control all 3 channels.
Every 60 minutes, the Nexus protocol automatically creates a checkpoint. This prevents blocks from being created or modified dated prior to this checkpoint, thus protecting the chain from malicious attempts to introduce an alternate blockchain.
 
4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement it?
To understand what quantum resistance is and why it is important, you need to understand how quantum computing works and why it’s a threat to blockchain technology. Classical computing uses an array of transistors. These transistors form the heart of your computer (the CPU). Each transistor is capable of being either on or off, and these states are used to represent the numerical values 1 and 0.
Binary digits’ (bits) number of states depends on the number of transistors available, according to the formula 2n, where n is the number of transistors. Classical computers can only be in one of these states at any one time, so the speed of your computer is limited to how fast it can change states.
Quantum computers utilize quantum bits, “qubits,” which are represented by the quantum state of electrons or photons. These particles are placed into a state called superposition, which allows the qubit to assume a value of 1 or 0 simultaneously.
Superposition permits a quantum computer to process a higher number of data possibilities than a classical computer. Qubits can also become entangled. Entanglement makes a qubit dependant on the state of another, enabling quantum computing to calculate complex problems, extremely quickly.
One such problem is the Discrete Logarithm Problem which elliptic curve cryptography relies on for security. Quantum computers can use Shor’s algorithm to reverse a key in polynomial time (which is really really really fast). This means that public keys become vulnerable to quantum attack, since quantum computers are capable of being billions of times faster at certain calculations. One way to increase quantum resistance is to require more qubits (and more time) by using larger private keys:
Bitcoin Private Key (256 bit) 5Kb8kLf9zgWQnogidDA76MzPL6TsZZY36hWXMssSzNydYXYB9KF
Nexus Private Key (571 bit) 6Wuiv513R18o5cRpwNSCfT7xs9tniHHN5Lb3AMs58vkVxsQdL4atHTF Vt5TNT9himnCMmnbjbCPxgxhSTDE5iAzCZ3LhJFm7L9rCFroYoqz
Bitcoin addresses are created by hashing the public key, so it is not possible to decrypt the public key from the address; however, once you send funds from that address, the public key is published on the blockchain rendering that address vulnerable to attack. This means that your money has higher chances of being stolen.
Nexus eliminates these vulnerabilities through an innovation called signature chains. Signature chains will enable access to an account using a username, password and PIN. When you create a transaction on the network, you claim ownership of your signature chain by revealing the public key of the NextHash (the hash of your public key) and producing a signature from the one time use private key. Your wallet then creates a new private/public keypair, generates a new NextHash, including the corresponding contract. This contract can be a receive address, a debit, a vote, or any other type of rule that is written in the contract code.
This keeps the public key obscured until the next transaction, and by divorcing the address from the public key, it is unnecessary to change addresses in order to change public keys. Changing your password or PIN code becomes a case of proving ownership of your signature chain and broadcasting a new transaction with a new NextHash for your new password and/or PIN. This provides the ability to login to your account via the signature chain, which becomes your personal chain within the 3D chain, enabling the network to prove and disprove trust, and improving ease of use without sacrificing security.
The next challenge with quantum computers is that Grover’s algorithm reduces the security of one-way hash function by a factor of two. Because of this, Nexus incorporates two new hash functions, Skein and Keccak, which were designed in 2008 as part of a contest to create a new SHA3 standard. Keccak narrowly defeated Skein to win the contest, so to maximize their potential Nexus combines these algorithms. Skein and Keccak utilize permutation to rotate and mix the information in the hash.
To maintain a respective 256/512 bit quantum resistance, Nexus uses up to 1024 bits in its proof-of-work, and 512 bits for transactions.
 
5. What is the Unified Time protocol?
All blockchains use time-stamping mechanisms, so it is important that all nodes operate using the same clock. Bitcoin allows for up to 2 hours’ discrepancy between nodes, which provides a window of opportunity for the blockchain to be manipulated by time-related attack vectors. Nexus eliminates this vulnerability by implementing a time synchronization protocol termed Unified Time. Unified Time also enhances transaction processing and will form an integral part of the 3D chain scaling solution.
The Unified Time protocol facilitates a peer-to-peer timing system that keeps all clocks on the network synchronized to within a second. This is seeded by selected nodes with timestamps derived from the UNIX standard; that is, the number of seconds since January 1st, 1970 00:00 UTC. Every minute, the seed nodes report their current time, and a moving average is used to calculate the base time. Any node which sends back a timestamp outside a given tolerance is rejected.
It is important to note that the Nexus network is fully synchronized even if an individual wallet displays something different from the local time.
 
6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?
One of the key limitations of a purely electronic monetary system is that it requires a connection to the rest of the network to verify transactions. Existing network infrastructure only services a fraction of the world’s population.
Nexus, in conjunction with Vector Space Systems, is designing communication satellites, or cubesats, to be launched into Low Earth Orbit in 2019. Primarily, the cubesat mesh network will exist to give Nexus worldwide coverage, but Nexus will also utilize its orbital and ground mesh networks to provide free and uncensored internet access to the world.
 

The Nexus Currency (NXS):

1. How can I get Nexus?
There are two ways you can obtain Nexus. You can either buy Nexus from an exchange, or you can run a miner and be rewarded for finding a block. If you wish to mine Nexus, please follow our guide found below.
Currently, Nexus is available on the following exchanges:
Nexus is actively reaching out to other exchanges to continue to be listed on cutting edge new financial technologies..
 
2. How much does a transaction cost?
Under Nexus, the fee structure for making a transaction depends on the size of your transaction. A default fee of 0.01 NXS will cover most transactions, and users have the option to pay higher fees to ensure their transactions are processed quickly.
When the 3D chain is complete and the initial 10-year distribution period finishes, Nexus will absorb these fees through inflation, enabling free transactions.
 
3. How fast does Nexus transfer?
Nexus reaches consensus approximately every ~ 50 seconds. This is an average time, and will in some circumstances be faster or slower. NXS currency which you receive is available for use after just 6 confirmations. A confirmation is proof from a node that the transaction has been included in a block. The number of confirmations in this transaction is the number that states how many blocks it has been since the transaction is included. The more confirmations a transaction has, the more secure its placement in the blockchain is.
 
4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
The Nexus Embassy, a 501(C)(3) not-for-profit corporation, develops and maintains the Nexus blockchain software. When Nexus began under the name Coinshield, the early blocks were mined using the Developer and Exchange (Ambassador) addresses, which provides funding for the Nexus Embassy.
The Developer Fund fuels ongoing development and is sourced by a 1.5% commission per block mined, which will slowly increase to 2.5% after 10 years. This brings all the benefits of development funding without the associated risks.
The Ambassador (renamed from Exchange) keys are funded by a 20% commission per block reward. These keys are mainly used to pay for marketing, and producing and launching the Nexus satellites.
When Nexus introduces developer and ambassador contracts, they will be approved, denied, or removed by six voting groups namely: currency, developer, ambassador, prime, hash, and trust.
Please Note: The Nexus Embassy reserves the sole right to trade, sell and or use these funds as required; however, Nexus will endeavor to minimize the impact that the use of these funds has upon the NXS market value.
 
5. Is there a cap on the number of NXS in existence?
After an initial 10-year distribution period ending on September 23rd, 2024, there will be a total of 78 million NXS. Over this period, the reward gradient for mining Nexus follows a decaying logarithmic curve instead of the reward halving inherent in Bitcoin. This avoids creating a situation where older mining equipment is suddenly unprofitable, encouraging miners to continue upgrading their equipment over time and at the same time reducing major market shocks on block halving events.
When the distribution period ends, the currency supply will inflate annually by a maximum of 3% via staking and by 1% via the prime and hashing channels. This inflation is completely unlike traditional inflation, which degrades the value of existing coins. Instead, the cost of providing security to the blockchain is paid by inflation, eliminating transaction fees.
Colin Cantrell - Nexus Inflation Explained
 
6. What is the difference between the LLD wallet and the Oracle wallet?
Due to the scales of efficiency needed by blockchain, Nexus has developed a custom-built database called the Lower Level Database. Since the development of the LLD wallet 0.2.3.1, which is a precursor to the Tritium updates, you should begin using the LLD wallet to take advantage of the faster load times and improved efficiency.
The Oracle wallet is a legacy wallet which is no longer maintained or updated. It utilized the Berkeley DB, which is not designed to meet the needs of a blockchain. Eventually, users will need to migrate to the LLD wallet. Fortunately, the wallet.dat is interchangeable between wallets, so there is no risk of losing access to your NXS.
 
7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
Step 1 - Backup your wallet.dat file. You can do this from within the Oracle wallet Menu, Backup Wallet.
Step 2 - Uninstall the Oracle wallet. Close the wallet and navigate to the wallet data directory. On Windows, this is the Nexus folder located at %APPDATA%\Nexus. On macOS, this is the Nexus folder located at ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus. Move all of the contents to a temporary folder as a backup.
Step 3 - Copy your backup of wallet.dat into the Nexus folder located as per Step 2.
Step 4 - Install the Nexus LLD wallet. Please follow the steps as outlined in the next section. Once your wallet is fully synced, your new wallet will have access to all your addresses.
 
8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet?
You can install your Nexus wallet by following these steps:
Step 1 - Download your wallet from www.nexusearth.com. Click the Downloads menu at the top and select the appropriate wallet for your operating system.
Step 2 - Unzip the wallet program to a folder. Before running the wallet program, please consider space limitations and load times. On the Windows OS, the wallet saves all data to the %APPDATA%\Nexus folder, including the blockchain, which is currently ~3GB.
On macOS, data is saved to the ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus folder. You can create a symbolic link, which will allow you to install this information in another location.
Using Windows, follow these steps:
On macOS, follow these steps:
Step 3 (optional) - Before running the wallet, we recommend downloading the blockchain database manually. Nexus Earth maintains a copy of the blockchain data which can save hours from the wallet synchronization process. Please go to www.nexusearth.com and click the Downloads menu.
Step 4 (optional) - Extract the database file. This is commonly found in the .zip or .rar format, so you may need a program like 7zip to extract the contents. Please extract it to the relevant directory, as outlined in step 2.
Step 5 - You can now start your wallet. After it loads, it should be able to complete synchronization in a short time. This may still take a couple of hours. Once it has completed synchronizing, a green check mark icon will appear in the lower right corner of the wallet.
Step 6 - Encrypt your wallet. This can be done within the wallet, under the Settings menu. Encrypting your wallet will lock it, requiring a password in order to send transactions.
Step 7 - Backup your wallet.dat file. This can be done from the File menu inside the wallet. This file contains the keys to the addresses in your wallet. You may wish to keep a secure copy of your password somewhere, too, in case you forget it or someone else (your spouse, for example) ever needs it.
You should back up your wallet.dat file again any time you create – or a Genesis transaction creates (see “staking” below) – a new address.
 

Types of Mining or Minting:

1.Can I mine Nexus?
Yes, there are 2 channels that you can use to mine Nexus, and 1 channel of minting:
Prime Mining Channel
This mining channel looks for a special prime cluster of a set length. This type of calculation is resistant to ASIC mining, allowing for greater decentralization. This is most often performed using the CPU.
Hashing Channel
This channel utilizes the more traditional method of hashing. This process adds a random nonce, hashes the data, and compares the resultant hash against a predetermined format set by the difficulty. This is most often performed using a GPU.
Proof of Stake (nPoS)
Staking is a form of mining NXS. With this process, you can receive NXS rewards from the network for continuously operating your node (wallet). It is recommended that you only stake with a minimum balance of 1000 NXS. It’s not impossible to stake with less, but it becomes harder to maintain trust. Losing trust resets the interest rate back to 0.5% per annum.
 
2. How do I mine Nexus?
As outlined above, there are two types of mining and 1 proof of stake. Each type of mining uses a different component of your computer to find blocks, the CPU or the GPU. Nexus supports CPU and GPU mining on Windows only. There are also third-party macOS builds available.
Please follow the instructions below for the relevant type of miner.
 
Prime Mining:
Almost every CPU is capable of mining blocks on this channel. The most effective method of mining is to join a mining pool and receive a share of the rewards based on the contribution you make. To create your own mining facility, you need the CPU mining software, and a NXS address. This address cannot be on an exchange. You create an address when you install your Nexus wallet. You can find the related steps under How Do I Install the Nexus Wallet?
Please download the relevant miner from http://nexusearth.com/mining.html. Please note that there are two different miner builds available: the prime solo miner and the prime pool miner. This guide will walk you through installing the pool miner only.
Step 1 - Extract the archive file to a folder.
Step 2 - Open the miner.conf file. You can use the default host and port, but these may be changed to a pool of your choice. You will need to change the value of nxs_address to the address found in your wallet. Sieve_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to use to find primes. Ptest_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to test the primes found by the sieve. As a general rule, the number of threads used for the sieve should be 75% of the threads used for testing.
It is also recommended to add the following line to the options found in the .conf file:
"experimental" : "true"
This option enables the miner to use an improved sieve algorithm which will enable your miner to find primes at a faster rate.
Step 3 - Run the nexus_cpuminer.exe file. For a description of the information shown in this application, please read this guide.
 
Hashing:
The GPU is a dedicated processing unit housed on-board your graphics card. The GPU is able to perform certain tasks extremely well, unlike your CPU, which is designed for parallel processing. Nexus supports both AMD and Nvidia GPU mining, and works best on the newer models. Officially, Nexus does not support GPU pool mining, but there are 3rd party miners with this capability.
The latest software for the Nvidia miner can be found here. The latest software for the AMD miner can be found here. The AMD miner is a third party miner. Information and advice about using the AMD miner can be found on our Slack channel. This guide will walk you through the Nvidia miner.
Step 1 - Close your wallet. Navigate to %appdata%\Nexus (~/Library/Application Support/Nexus on macOS) and open the nexus.conf file. Depending on your wallet, you may or may not have this file. If not, please create a new txt file and save it as nexus.conf
You will need to add the following lines before restarting your wallet:
Step 2 - Extract the files into a new folder.
Step 3 - Run the nexus.bat file. This will run the miner and deposit any rewards for mining a block into the account on your wallet.
For more information on either Prime Mining or Hashing, please join our Slack and visit the #mining channel. Additional information can be found here.
 
3. How do I stake Nexus?
Once you have your wallet installed, fully synchronized and encrypted, you can begin staking by:
After you begin staking, you will receive a Genesis transaction as your first staking reward. This establishes a Trust key in your wallet and stakes your wallet balance on that key. From that point, you will periodically receive additional Trust transactions as further staking rewards for as long as your Trust key remains active.
IMPORTANT - After you receive a Genesis transaction, backup your wallet.dat file immediately. You can select the Backup Wallet option from the File menu, or manually copy the file directly. If you do not do this, then your Nexus balance will be staked on the Trust key that you do not have backed up, and you risk loss if you were to suffer a hard drive failure or other similar problem. In the future, signature chains will make this precaution unnecessary.
 
4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are interest rate, trust weight, block weight, and stake weight?
These items affect the size and frequency of staking rewards after you receive your initial Genesis transaction. When staking is active, the wallet displays a clock icon in the bottom right corner. If you hover your mouse pointer over the icon, a tooltip-style display will open up, showing their current values.
Please remember to backup your wallet.dat file (see question 3 above) after you receive a Genesis transaction.
Interest Rate - The minting rate at which you will receive staking rewards, displayed as an annual percentage of your NXS balance. It starts at 0.5%, increasing to 3% after 12 months. The rate increase is not linear but slows over time. It takes several weeks to reach 1% and around 3 months to reach 2%.
With this rate, you can calculate the average amount of NXS you can expect to receive each day for staking.
Trust Weight - An indication of how much the network trusts your node. It starts at 5% and increases much more quickly than the minting (interest) rate, reaching 100% after one month. Your level of trust increases your stake weight (below), thus increasing your chances of receiving staking transactions. It becomes easier to maintain trust as this value increases.
Block Weight - Upon receipt of a Genesis transaction, this value will begin increasing slowly, reaching 100% after 24 hours. Every time you receive a staking transaction, the block weight resets. If your block weight reaches 100%, then your Trust key expires and everything resets (0.5% interest rate, 5% trust weight, waiting for a new Genesis transaction).
This 24-hour requirement will be replaced by a gradual decay in the Tritium release. As long as you receive a transaction before it decays completely, you will hold onto your key. This change addresses the potential of losing your trust key after months of staking simply because of one unlucky day receiving trust transactions.
Stake Weight - The higher your stake weight, the greater your chance of receiving a transaction. The exact value is a derived by a formula using your trust weight and block weight, which roughly equals the average of the two. Thus, each time you receive a transaction, your stake weight will reset to approximately half of your current level of trust.
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